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Process Design

OIL AND GAS GloSSARY

​Absorption
The process of drawing a gas or liquid into a solid through the minute spaces between its parts.

 Adsorption
The process by which molecules of a substance, such as a gas or a liquid, collect on the surface of another substance, such as a solid. The molecules are attracted to the surface but do not enter the solid's minutespaces, as in absorption. Some drinking water filters consist of carbon cartridges that adsorb contaminants.

 ADU
Atmospheric Distillation Unit

Amine
Chemical used as solvent to remove H2S and CO2 from hydrocarbon streams

 ANSI
American National Standards Institute.

Aromatic
Benzene type hydrocarbons

 ASME Boiler Code
Pressure Vessel Codes that govern safety, design, fabrication, and inspection.

Autothermal Reforming
Process to produce Hydrogen, typically it is a licensed technology.


 Battery Limits
Geographic boundary, real or imaginary, around the processing plant which converts raw material to finished product.

 BPSD or B/SD
Barrels per standard day.

Brownfield
Existing facilities available to be modified or reused.


BTEX
Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes

BTU
British Thermal Unit

CAD
Computer-aided Design

Carbon Capture
The process of trapping carbon dioxide at its emission source,transporting it to a usually underground storage location, and isolating it there

Catalytic Cracking
Process to convert the high-boiling, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils to more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases, and other products

CDU
Crude Distillation Unit

CFM
Cubic feet per minute.

Cogeneration
Cogeneration (Combined Heat and Power or CHP) is the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, both of which are used. 

Commissioning
The process of assuring that all systems and components of an industrial plant are designed, installed, tested, operated, and maintained according to the operational requirements of the owner or final client. A commissioning process may be applied not only to new projects but also to existing units and systems subject to expansion, renovation or revamping.


Constructability
The input of construction knowledge and expertise throughout the planning, design, procurement, safety and field operations to improve the means and methods of improving the design intent.

Decommissioning
Withdraw equipment from service.

Decontamination
The process of removing or neutralizing contaminants that have accumulated on personnel and equipment

Desalination
Desalination (also called “desalinization” and “desalting”) is the process of removing dissolved salts from water, thus producing fresh water from seawater or brackish water. 


Design-Build
Design-Build is a method of project delivery in which one entity – the design-build team – works under a single contract with the project owner to provide design and construction services

Downstream
The oil and gas operations that take place after the production phase, through to the point of sale. Downstream operations can include refining crude oil and distributing the by-products down to the retail level. By-products can include gasoline, natural gas liquids, diesel and a variety of other energy sources

 E&C
Engineering and construction.

 ECO
Electro Catalytic Oxidation.

 Enhanced Oil Recovery
Process of obtaining stranded oil not recovered from an oil reservoir through certain extraction processes. EOR uses methods including thermal recovery, gas injection, chemical injection and low-salinity water flooding

EPC
Engineering, procurement and construction.

 EPCM
Engineering, procurement, and construction management

FEED
Front-end engineering and design.

Front-end engineering and design
Basic engineering which comes after the Conceptual design or Feasibility study. The FEED design focuses the technical requirements as well as rough investment cost for the project. 


Feedstock
Raw material to supply or fuel a machine or industrial process.


FGD
Flue gas desulfurization.

Fixed Cost
A cost that does not change with an increase or decrease in the amount of goods or services produced


Fractionation Column
 A long vertical cylinder used in fractional distillation, in which internal reflux enables separation of high and low boiling fractions to take place


Gathering Systems
The flowline network and process facilities that transport and control the flow of oil or gas from the wells to a main storage facility, processing plant or shipping point. It is also called the collecting system or gathering facility.

Grassroots Plant
A complete plant erected on a site.


Greenfield project
New project, grassroots plant

HAZMAT
Hazardous Materials.  Any substance or chemical which is a "health hazard" or "physical hazard”.

 HDPE
High density polyethylene.

Heavy Crude
High molecular weight crude with API lower than 22

HRSG
Heat Recovery Steam Generator.

HSE
Health, Safety & Environmental

HVAC
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

 Hydrocracker
Refinery process where hydrocracking of hydrocarbons occurs

Hydrocracking
Refinery process where high molecular weight hydrocarbons are reduced to lower molecular weight hydrocarbons by adding hydrogen at high pressure and temperature in the presence of a catalyst.

IBC
International Building Code.


IGCC
Integrated gasification combined cycle

ISO
International Standards Organization.


ISO
Isometric Drawing. A drawing of piping using isometric conventions to represent a 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional piping system.


J
Joule

LDPE
Low density polyethylene.

LNG
Liquefied natural gas.


LPG
Liquefied petroleum gas.

Mechanical Completion
Unit is essentially complete for start-up operation and test run.

NDE
Non Destructive Examination of welds performed in vessels and pipes, NDE technologies include Phase Array, X-Rays, Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant testing.

 NGL
Natural Gas Liquid.

O&M
Operations and maintenance.

Oil Sands
Bituminous sands, generally coming from Canada.

Olefins
Unsaturated double bond linear hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene and butane. They serve as feedstock for more complex chemical products such as polymers.


P&ID
Piping & Instrumentation Diagram.

PFD
Process Flow Diagram.

PPB
Parts per billion.

PPE
Personal Protective Equipment.

PPM
Parts per million.

Process Vessel
A metallic container for handling liquids and gases in a process.

QA
Quality Assurance.

QC
Quality Control.

QSR
Quality Surveillance Report.

Reactor
A vessel where chemical reactions occur, it may or may not have catalysts.

Reformer
Refinery process that uses heat and pressure to increase the octane number of naphtha using a catalyst.

Reverse Osmosis
Liquid filtering process in which a contaminated (more concentrated) liquid is forced to pass through a semi-permeable membrane that block most dissolved or suspended contaminants. 


SCFD
Standard cubic feet per day.

SCNR
Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction.

SCR
Selective Catalytic Reduction.

SNG
Synthetic natural gas.


Syngas

A gas produced from methane consisting of CO2 and H2 used in refinery and GTL processes.

TIC
Total installed cost.

TPD
Tons per day.

Turnkey Project
A complete project usually including many major units of plant completed under one overall contract, such as a chemical works or power station complex.

Upstream
The exploration recovery and production of crude oil and natural gas.

Vacuum Distillation
Distillation of petroleum at low pressures, used to separate the bottoms coming from the crude distillation unit into products such as LGO, HGO and asphalt.

VAM
Vinyl Acetate Monomer.

VFD
Variable Frequency Drive.


Wastewater
Water that has been used and contains dissolved or suspended waste materials. 

Wastewater Treatment
Process that modifies wastewater characteristics such as its biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, etc., to enable it meet effluent standards.


Wet Gas
Natural gas containing a high proportion of heavy hydrocarbons such as pentane, hexane and heptane, which can be recovered as NGL liquids.